Robert Böhm ⎪ Behavioral Scientist



Journal Articles

Accepted for publication / in press

Mottelson, A., Vanderweerdt, C., Atchapero, M., Luong, T., Holz, C., Böhm, R., & Makransky, G. (in press). A self-administered virtual reality intervention increases COVID-19 vaccination intention. Vaccine.

Böhm, R., Halevy, N., & Kugler, T. (in press). The power of defaults in intergroup conflict. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

Korn, L., Siegers, R., Eitze, S., Sprengholz, P., Taubert, F., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (in press). Age differences in COVID-19 preventive behavior: A psychological perspective. European Psychologist.

Sprengholz, P., Felgendreff, L., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (in press). Vaccination policy reactance: Predictors, consequences, and countermeasures. Journal of Health Psychology.

Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (in press). Prosocial vaccination. Current Opinion in Psychology.

Betsch, C., Bosnjak, M., Korn, L., Burgard, T., Gaissmaier, W., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., Sprengholz, P., Böhm, R., Stollorz, V., Ramharter, M., Promies, N., De Bock, F., Schmid, P., Renner, B., Wieler, L. (in press). The four weeks before lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany: A weekly serial cross-sectional study on risk perceptions, knowledge, public trust and behaviours in March 2020. Eurosurveillance.

Pfattheicher, S., Petersen, M. B., & Böhm, R. (in press). Information about herd immunity through vaccination and empathy promote COVID-19 vaccination intentions. Health Psychology.

Schiller, B., Tönsing, D., Kleinert, T., Böhm, R., & Heinrichs, M. (in press). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic nationwide lockdown on mental health, environmental concern, and prejudice against other social groups. Environment and Behavior.

Geiger, M., Rees, F., Lilleholt, L., Santana, A. P., Zettler, I. Wilhelm, O., Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (in press). Measuring the 7Cs of vaccination readiness. European Journal of Psychological Assessment

Sprengholz, P., Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (in press). Reactance revisited: Consequences of mandatory and scarce vaccination in the case of COVID-19. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being.

Hilbig, B. E., Thielmann, I., & Böhm, R. (in press). Bending our ethics code: Avoidable deception and its justification in psychological research. European Psychologist.

Zettler, I., Schild, C., Lilleholt, L., Kroencke, L., Utesch, T., Moshagen,M., Böhm, R., Back, M. D., & Geukes, K. (in press). The role of personality in COVID-19 related perceptions, evaluations, and behaviours: Findings across five samples, nine traits, and 17 criteria. Social Psychological and Personality Science.

Pummerer, L., Böhm, R., Lilleholt,L., Winter, K., Zettler, I., & Sassenberg, K. (in press). Conspiracy theories and their societal effects during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social Psychological and Personality Science.


Ehlert, A., Böhm, R., Fleiß, J., Rauhut, H., Rybnicek, R., & Winter, F. (2021). The development of prosociality: Evidence for a negative association between age and prosocial value orientation from a representative sample in Austria. Games, 12, 67.

Columbus, S., & Böhm, R. (2021). Norm shifts under the strategy method. Judgment and Decision Making, 16, 1267-1289.

Van Doesum, N. J., Murphy, R. O., Gallucci, M., Aharonov-Majar, E., Athenstaedt, U., Au, W. T., Bai, L., Böhm, R., Bovina, I., Buchan, N. R., Chen, X.-P., Dumont, K. B., Engelmann, J. B., Eriksson, K., Euh, H, Fiedler, S., Friesen, J. P., Gächter, S., Garcia, C., González, R., Graf, S., Growiec, K.,Guimond, S., Hřebíčková, M., Immer-Bernold, E., Joireman, J., Karagonlar, G., Kawakami, K., Kiyonari, T., Kou, Y., Kuhlman, M. D., Kyrtsis, A. A., Lay, S., Leonardelli, G. J., Li, N. P., Li, Y., Maciejovsky, B., Manesi, Z., Mashuri, A., Mok, A., Moser, K. S., Motak, L., Netedu, A., Platow, M. J., Raczka, K., Reinders Folmer, C. P., Reyna, C., Romano, A., Shalvi, S., Simão, C., Stivers,A. W., Strimling, P., Tsirbas, Y., Utz, S., van der Meij, L., Waldzus, S., Wang, Y., Weber, B., Weisel, O., Wildschut, T., Winter, F., Wu, J., Yong, J. C., Van Lange, P. A. M. (2021). Social mindfulness and prosociality vary across the globe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 18, e2023846118.

Zettler, I., Lilleholt, L., Böhm, R., & Gondan, M. (2021). Comparing responses in repeated cross-sectional and panel studies: Results across eight weeks during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Denmark. Psychological Assessment, 33, 691-704.

Theelen, M. M. P., & Böhm, R. (2021). The conflict-cooperation effect persists under intragroup payoff asymmetry. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 24, 815-835.

Böhm, R., Fleiß, J., & Rybnicek, R. (2021). On the stability of social preferences in inter-group conflict: A lab-in-the-field panel study. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 65, 1215-1248.

Thielmann, I., Böhm, R., Ott, M., & Hilbig, B. E. (2021). Economic games: An introduction and guide for research. Collabra: Psychology, 7, 19004.

Korn, L., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2021). Reply to Rabb et al.: Why promoting COVID-19 vaccines with community immunity is not a good strategy (yet). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118, e2102054118.

Betsch, C., Korn, L., & Böhm, R. (2021). Reply to Weisel: From polarization to vaccination and back. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118, e2102717118.

Thielmann, I., Böhm, R., & Hilbig, B. E. (2021). Buying unethical loyalty: A behavioral paradigm and empirical test. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 12, 363-370.


Böhm, R., Lilleholt, L., Meineche, J. T., Strandsbjerg, C. F., Windfeld, A., Windfeld, F. C., & Zettler, I. (2020). The COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring in Denmark. Samfundsøkonomen, 4, 62-69.

Gross, J., & Böhm, R. (2020). Voluntary restrictions on self-reliance increase cooperation and mitigate wealth inequality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,17, 29202-29211.

Pfattheicher, S., Nockur, L., Böhm, R., Sassenrath, C., & Petersen, M. B. (2020). The emotional path to action: Empathy promotes physical distancing and wearing of face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological Science, 31, 1363-1373.

Jörling, M., Böhm, R., & Paluch, S. (2020). Mechanisms and consequences of anthropomorphizing autonomous products: The role of schema congruity and prior experience. Schmalenbach Business Review, 72, 485-510.

Böhm, R., Rusch, H., & Baron, J. (2020). The psychology of intergroup conflict: A review of theories and measures. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 178, 947-962.

Böhm, R., Gürerk, Ö., & Lauer, T. (2020). Nudging climate change mitigation: A laboratory experiment with inter-generational public goods. Games, 11, 42.

Betsch, C., Korn, L., Sprengholz, P., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., Schmid, P., & Böhm, R. (2020). Social and behavioral consequences of mask policies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117, 21851-21853.

Habersaat, K., Betsch, C., Danchin, M., Sunstein, C. R., Böhm, R., Falk, A., Brewer, N. T., Omer, S. T., Scherzer, M., Sah, S., Fischer, E. F., Scheel, A. E., Fancourt, D., Kitayama, S., Dubé, E., Leask, J., Dutta, M., MacDonald, N. E., Temkina, A., Lieberoth, A., Jackson, M., Lewandowsky, S., Seale, H., Fietje, N., Schmid, P., Gelfand, M., Korn, L., Eitze, S., Felgendreff, L., Sprengholz, P., Salvi, C., Butler, R. (2020). Ten considerations for effectively managing the COVID-19 transition. Nature Human Behaviour, 4, 677-687.

Korn, L., Böhm, R., Meier, N., & Betsch, C. (2020). Vaccination as a social contract. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 17, 14891-14899.

Betsch, C., Bach Habersaat, K., Deshevoi, S., Heinemeier, D., Briko, N., Kostenko, N., Kocik, J., Böhm, R., Zettler, I., Wiysonge, C. S., Dubé, È., Gagneur, A., Botelho-Nevers, E., Gagneux-Brunon, A., & Sivelä, J. (2020). Sample study protocol foradapting and translating the 5C scale to assess the psychologial antecedents of vaccination. BMJ Open, 10, e034869.

Aaldering, H., & Böhm, R. (2020). Parochial vs. universal cooperation: Introducing a novel economic game of within- and between-group interaction. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 11, 36-45.

Meier, N. W., Böhm, R., Korn,L., & Betsch, C. (2020). Individual preferences for voluntary vs. mandatory vaccination policies: An experimental analysis. European Journal of Public Health,30, 50-55.


Jörling, M., Böhm, R., & Paluch, S. (2019). Service robots: Drivers of perceived responsibility for service outcomes. Journal of Service Research, 22, 404-420.

Rusch, H., & Böhm, R. (2019). A note on the endogeneity of attacker and defender roles in asymmetric conflicts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 42, e139.

Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2019). Ablehnung der Impfpflicht ist keine Ablehnung des Impfens. [= Rejection of mandatory vaccination is no rejection of vaccination.] Deutsches Ärzteblatt, 116,21.

Böhm, R., Meier, N. W., Groß, M., Korn, L., & Betsch, C. (2019). The willingness to vaccinate increases when vaccination protects others who have low responsibility for not being vaccinated. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 42, 381-291.

Betsch, C., Schmid, P., Korn, L., Steinmeyer, L., Heinemeier, D., Eitze, S., Küpke, N. K., & Böhm, R. (2019). Impfverhalten psychologisch erklären, messen und verändern. [= Psychological antecedents of vaccination: Definitions, measurement, and interventions.] Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz, 62, 400-409.

Vollstädt, U., & Böhm, R. (2019). Are groups more competitive, more selfish-rational or more prosocial bargainers? Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 78, 146-159.


Betsch, C., Schmid, P., Heinemeier, D., Korn, L.,Holtmann, C., & Böhm, R. (2018). Beyond confidence: Development of a measure assessing the 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination. PLoS ONE, 13, e0208601.

Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2018). Moral values do not affect prosocial vaccination. Nature Human Behaviour, 2, 881-882.

Böhm, R., Rockenbach, B., & Zimmermann, J. (2018). United we stand, divided we fall: The limitations of between-group comparisons for fostering within-group cooperation. Journal of Economic Psychology, 69, 19-29.

Korn, L., Betsch, C., Böhm, R., & Meier, N. W. (2018). Social nudging:The effect of social feedback interventions on vaccine uptake. Health Psychology, 37, 1045-1054.

Böhm, R., Theelen, M. M. P., Rusch,H., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2018). Costs, needs, and integration efforts shape helping behavior toward refugees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115, 7284-7289.

Pfattheicher, S., Böhm, R., & Kesberg, R. (2018). The advantage of democratic peer punishment in sustaining cooperation within groups. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 31, 562-571.

Van Lange, P. A. M., & Böhm,R. (2018). Support for refugees increases when refugees participate in integration programs. The Conversation, 2018-07-06.

Böhm, R., Thielmann, I., & Hilbig, B. E. (2018).The brighter the light, the deeper the shadow: Morality also fuels aggression, conflict, and violence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 41, e98.

Pfattheicher, S., & Böhm, R. (2018). Honesty-Humility under threat: Self-uncertainty destroys trust among the nice guys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114, 179-194.


Böhm, R., Meier, N. W., Korn, L., & Betsch, C. (2017). Behavioural consequences of vaccination recommendations: An experimental analysis. Health Economics, 26, 66-75.

Böhm, R., & Buttelmann, D. (2017). The impact of resource valence on children‘s other-regarding preferences. Developmental Psychology, 53, 1656-1665.

Korn, L., Betsch, C., Böhm, R., & Meier, N. W. (2017). Drawbacks of communicating refugee vaccination rates. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 17, 364-365.

Betsch, C., Böhm, R., Korn, L, & Holtmann, C. (2017). On the benefits of explaining herd immunity in vaccine advocacy. Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 0056.


Böhm, R., Betsch, C., & Korn, L. (2016). Selfish-rational non-vaccination: Experimental evidence from an interactive vaccination game. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 131, 183-195.

Böhm, R., Betsch, C, Korn, L, & Holtmann, C. (2016). Exploring and promoting pro-social vaccination: A cross-cultural experiment on vaccination of health care personnel. BioMed Research International, 2016, 6870984.

Thielmann, I., & Böhm,R. (2016). Who does (not) participate in intergroup conflict? Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7, 778-787.

Betsch, C., Böhm, R., Airhihenbuwa, C. O., Butler, R., Chapman, G. B., Haase, N., Herrmann, B., Igarashi, T., Kitayama, S., Korn, L., Nurm, Ü.-K., Rohrmann, B., Rothman, A. J., Shavitt, S., Updegraff, J. A., Uskul, A. K. (2016). Improving medical decision making and health promotion through culture-sensitive health communication: An agenda for science and practice. Medical Decision Making, 36, 811-833.

Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2016). Editorial: Cultural diversity calls for culture-sensitive health communication. Medical Decision Making, 36, 795-797.

Böhm, R. (2016). Invited commentary: Intuitive participation in aggressive intergroup conflict: Evidence of weak versus strong parochial altruism. Frontiers in Psychology, 7:1535.

Rusch, H., Böhm, R., & Herrmann, B. (2016). Editorial: Parochial altruism - Pitfalls and prospects. Frontiers in Psychology, 7:1004.

Böhm,R., & Theelen, M. M. P. (2016). Outcome valence and externality valence framing in public good dilemmas. Journal of Economic Psychology, 54, 151-163.

Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2016). Detrimental effects of introducing partial compulsory vaccination: Experimental evidence. European Journal of Public Health, 26, 378-381.

Böhm, R., Rusch, H., & Gürerk, Ö. (2016). What makes people go to war? Defensive intentions motivate retaliatory and preemptive intergroup aggression. Evolution and Human Behavior, 37, 29-34.


Betsch, C., Böhm, R., & Chapman, G. B. (2015). Using behavioral insights to increase vaccination policy effectiveness. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 61-73.

Thielmann, I., Böhm, R., & Hilbig, B. E. (2015). Different games for different motives: Comment on Haesevoets, Folmer, and Van Hiel (2015). European Journal of Personality, 29, 506-508.

Korn, L., Holtmann, C., Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2015). Die Impfbereitschaft verstehen und verbessern: Wenn persönliche Impfentscheidungen im Konflikt mit dem Gemeinwohl stehen und wie man dieses Dilemma auflösen kann. [= Understanding and promoting vaccination intentions: When personal vaccination decisions are in conflict with social welfare and how to solve this dilemma.] Das In-Mind Magazin, 2-2015.

Weisel, O.,& Böhm, R. (2015). “Ingroup love“ and “outgroup hate“ in intergroup conflict between natural groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 60, 110-120.


Buttelmann, D., & Böhm, R. (2014). The ontogeny of the motivation that underlies in-group bias. Psychological Science, 25, 921-927.

2013 and earlier

Betsch, C., Böhm, R., & Korn, L. (2013). Inviting free-riders or appealing to prosocial behavior? Game-theoretical reflections on communicating herd immunity in vaccine advocacy. Health Psychology. 32, 978-985.

Böhm, R., & Rockenbach, B. (2013). The inter-group comparison - intra-group cooperation hypothesis: Comparisons between groups increase efficiency in public goods provision. PLoS ONE, 8(2): e56152.

Böhm, R., Rothermund, K., & Kirchkamp, O. (2013). Social categorization and group-motivated interindividual-intergroup discontinuity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 40-49.

Böhm, R., & Regner, T. (2013). Charitable giving among females and males: An empirical test of the competitive altruism hypothesis. Journal of Bioeconomics, 15, 251-267.

Böhm, R., Funke, F., & Harth, N. S. (2010). Same-race and same-gender voting preferences and the role of perceived realistic threat in the democratic primaries and caucuses 2008. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 10, 248-261.

Böhm, R., Schütz, A., Rentzsch, K., Körner, A., & Funke, F. (2010). Are we looking for positivity or similarity in a partner‘s outlook on life? Similarity predicts perceptions of social attractiveness and relationship quality. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 431-438.

Rudolph, U., Böhm, R., & Lummer, M. (2007). Ein Vorname sagt mehr als 1000 Worte: Zur sozialen Wahrnehmung von Vornamen. [= A name says more than thousand words: The social perception of firstnames.] Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 38, 17-31.

Gentile, G.-C., Böhm, R., & Hoffmann, C. (2007). Auf dem Weg zum Corporate Citizen - eine Bestandsaufnahme anleitender Texte. [= Towards corporate citizenship - The current status of introductory texts.] Wirtschaftspsychologie, 1, 58-64.

Books and Book Chapters

Capraro, V., Boggio, P. S., Böhm, R., Perc, M., & Sjåstad, H. (in press). Cooperation and acting for the greater good during the COVID-19 pandemic. In M. K. Miller (Ed.) The Social Science of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Call to Action for Researchers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pfattheicher, S., & Böhm, R. (2017). Mechanisms to detect and punish cheaters. In T. K. Shackelford and V. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Cham: Springer.

Böhm, R., & Rusch, H. (2016). Evolved psychology of warfare. In T. K. Shackelford and V. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Cham: Springer.

Theelen, M. M. P., & Böhm, R. (2016). Reciprocal altruism and group living. In T. K. Shackelford and V. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Cham: Springer.

Rusch, H., Böhm, R., & Herrmann, B., eds. (2016). Parochial altruism: Pitfalls and prospects. Lausanne: Frontiers Media. ISBN: 987-2-88919-945-7.


Faculty of Psychology

Universitätsstrasse 7

1010 Vienna, Austria